Apart from multiplication, tissue culture of plants is also used as a tool for breeding purposes. For example by specific rescuing techniques for embryo's or none fertilized gametes. It is also possible to treat plants in a certain phase of the tissue culture period to induce changes in the genetics of the plants.

One of Iribov’s specialties is the multiplication of the whole chromosome set of the plant by chromosome doubling. Higher ploidy levels results often in improved plant architecture and larger flowers. It is also used to overcome sterility caused by an unequal amount of chromsome sets or interspecific hybridization.

Embryo rescue is one of the earliest and most successful forms of in-vitro culture techniques, which plays an important role in modern plant breeding. By crossing distant related plants usually embryos are formed that unfortunately are not fertile enough to survive. Embryo rescue is used to assist in the development of plant embryos by putting them on a specific growing medium.

It is possible to increase the natural mutation frequency in plants cells dramatically by using chemical mutagens or radiation. Although it is possible to do this without using tissue culture, tissue culture provides a safe enclosed and conditioned environment, which is compact, fast and more efficient.
Another possibility is the use of somaclonal variation caused by a phase of an unorganized growth in tissue culture.